How much do you know about all kinds of glass in life? With the development of modern information society, people's life has been inseparable from optical fibers transmitting signals. At present, the optical fibers used by people are generally quartz glass fibers. The main method of making this kind of glass material is melting high purity quartz glass into a melt in a high temperature furnace, and then stretching the melt into a thin filament with a diameter of about 100 microns hollow. When light is injected into fiberglass at an appropriate angle, it travels along the curved fiberglass, so it is called a fiberglass. In 1966, Gao Rong, a British Chinese scientist, theoretically proved the feasibility of using optical fibers as a medium to transmit optical signals. Nowadays, optical fibers have become widely used communication materials.
Photochromic glass is also involved in light-related glass. Photochromic glass changes from colorless and transparent to dark in sunlight or strong light; after discoloration, the glass is placed in the shade and becomes colorless and transparent again. The secret of its color change lies in the addition of silver bromide (or silver chloride) and trace copper oxide to the glass. Silver bromide decomposes into silver atoms and bromine atoms (or chlorine atoms) under intense light irradiation. Silver atoms absorb visible light. When the number of silver atoms reaches a certain level, most of the visible light irradiated on the glass will not be absorbed. At this time, the glass will be grey-black. The blackened glass is placed in the dark, and silver atoms and bromine atoms (or chlorine atoms) are catalyzed by copper oxide. When used, silver bromide (or silver chloride) is synthesized, and the glass becomes colorless and transparent again. Photochromic glasses are often used as lenses for chromotropic glasses, and can also be used to make windows to soften the sunlight entering the room in summer. In recent years, a new type of discolored glass, electrochromic glass, which can change color steadily and reversibly under the action of electric field, has appeared in society. This kind of glass can change its color under artificial control. At present, the glass curtain wall made of electrochromic glass has been used in buildings.
Another kind of glass is indispensable in our life. That is high borosilicate glass. You may not be familiar with the name of this glass, but the utensils we make with it are used everyday, that is, people's drinking glasses. Compared with ordinary glass, high borosilicate glass has the advantages of high temperature resistance, low expansion rate, high strength and high hardness. Therefore, the water cup made of high borosilicate glass is not easy to crack in the case of sudden cooling and sudden heating. In addition, the main material for making glass pot is high borosilicate glass.